Sunday, May 24, 2020

Nike Inc. And The Ethical Dilemma Essay - 2155 Words

Abstract This paper delves into the well-known Nike Inc. and the ethical dilemma they have been struggling with for years, including the history as well as their efforts to address the issue. While they are have already found ways to try to turn their company around, this paper discusses multiple alternative options as well as the top recommendation and form of application for management to take. With analysis, evaluation, recommendation, and application, this case study will also focus on the impact of the five stakeholders: owners, employees, customers, stockholders, and society at large. Don’t Just Say It, Just Do It Every company, no matter how big or small, begins somewhere with the aspiration of success. With different approaches and strategies, different companies reach different levels. Nike Inc. is one of the many companies who has reached their success through intense marketing strategies, costing them a large portion of the business’s money. So if most of the money is going to marketing, how are they making such great, quality products? Well there are pros and cons to everything, but often times one is outweighed by the other. Nike’s money used for marketing comes from the money saved through outsourcing its manufacturing, so while the pros may include high brand awareness, the cons are immeasurably greater. Through outsourcing, countless lives are put in danger -- the number one, biggest, most detrimental con overlooked by Nike’s management. In this caseShow MoreRelatedEssay Nike- Ethical Issues1454 Words   |  6 PagesEthical Case Analysis: Nike Introduction Nike was established in 1972 by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight. These two men were visionaries. The goal for Nike was to carry on Bowerman’s legacy of innovative thinking by helping every athlete reach their goal or by creating lucrative business opportunities that would set the company apart from any competition. This included providing quality work environments for all who wereRead More Challenges of a Global Business Essay1176 Words   |  5 Pagesactions on not knowing about it or on the subcontractor or supplier. It is inevitable to avoid ethical issues when conducting global business. This is mainly because of differentiation of foreign laws, regulations, and policies. Among those there are also culture and language barriers that contribute to the origin of ethical dilemmas. More than anything cultures is one of the primary reason for why ethical issues come up amongst all others. Globalization is criticized for its practice of unethicalRead MoreThe Ethical Issues Nike Is Facing Based On Cross Cultural Settings Essay1983 Words   |  8 Pagesmost valuable brands in sports industries (Forbes, 2016), Nike Inc.’s strong brand portfolio makes it a dominant market position in this field. However, Nike has been accused of using sweatshops in developing countries to produce its products, which has largely influenced its brand reputation among the public (Newell, 2015). By outsourcing its product lines to reduce the cost of products, multinational corporations such as Nike is facing ethical challenges in terms of setting up factories in developingRead MoreNike Ethical Dilemma954 Words   |  4 PagesEthical dilemma is an issue involving moral principles with no right or wrong. There will always have debates on whether one matter is considered being right or to some people’s perspective, it might be wrong. Take for example in Singapore, many people will be against the idea of abortion as it is the same as murder. However, there are also some who are not against the idea. In fact, abortions were considered legal so long the pregnancy does not exceed 6 months. It actually depends on one’s conscienceRead MoreInternational Business Ethics And Ethical Issues Within International Organizations1113 Words   |  5 Pagesbecome socially responsible and ethical global citizens? What I am here to tell you today is that with the correct organisational procedures, internationally renowned businesses are able to become socially responsible and ethically recognised. However when international organisations have unseemly and immoral behavioural standards, generating ethical global citizens is out of the question. Today international business ethics have a number of open questions and dilemmas, which are characterized by theRead MoreNike Business Ethics2700 Words   |  11 PagesNike Ethical Dilemmas Ethical Audit Report Table of Contents Nike Ethical Dilemmas 1 Ethical Audit Report 1 Executive summary 2 Purpose of the Report 2 A Snapshot of Nike’s Business Ethics 3 Ethical Dilemma’s Facing Nike 4 Nike’s Best Ethical Practices 7 Conclusion 8 References 9 Executive summary As globalization increases the scope of the Multinational Companies (MNCs) to penetrate the market both for cost effectiveRead MoreBusiness Ethics of Nike Inc.5528 Words   |  23 Pageson the other hand, can be defined according by Wikipedia (2011), ‘a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.’ It is important to implement an ethical approach in a business company, as it has various responsibilities to look upon to, such as to shareholders, employees and theRead MoreHow Globalization Has Caused Products1871 Words   |  8 Pagesmore than ten years concerns encompassing worldwide work polishes in the wearing attire industry have been under a ton consideration from the general population (Arnold and Hartman 2003). Since mid- 1990 various sports bran ds giants, for example, Nike and Adidas Group have begun to be condemned by the press for demonstrating genuinely poor working conditions in its foreign production lines (The Guardian 2010). It has been brought to people in general consideration that the greater part of wearingRead MoreNike Outsourcing2367 Words   |  10 Pagesvaluable resource for Nike. Cutting costs by employing workers at a reduced rate or paying less for plant operation allows Nike to invest the additional profits into other areas of the business such as advertising, thereby increasing the potential for company growth. In addition, decreased operational costs are more likely to attract and retain company investors because more money can go into increasing business profitability.†¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨ Increases Competitiveness * Because Nike is able to more efficientlyRead MoreEssay on Mega Foods Case Study1893 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿ Mega Foods Case Study Cherice McCray Troy University- Dothan Campus As the regional director for Mega Foods Inc., I foresee several ethical issues stemming from closing plant operations in Orchard, Georgia and moving operations to the country of Frostburg. The utilitarianism approach as mentioned in Northouse (2013) is behaving in a way as to create the greatest the good for the greatest number. Keeping operations in Orchard, Georgia may not be the most profitable option;

Thursday, May 14, 2020

An Analysis Of Nigerian Bank Performance Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 15 Words: 4376 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? The provisional title of this research project work is: Consolidation and bank performance; an analysis of Nigerian banks. The choice of this topic emanates from the fact that the magnitude of banks inability to meet up their obligation in the nations banking industry has became an issue of concern to both the government, regulatory authorities, the banks as well as the general public. There is therefore need to ensure that the withdrawal need of customers, the shareholders smooth return objective as well as the banking need for the nations economic growth is met. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "An Analysis Of Nigerian Bank Performance Finance Essay" essay for you Create order It is against this background that this research project work is being proposed. The provisional title of this research project is: Consolidation and bank performance; analysis of Nigerian Banks 2004 to 2006. The choice of this topic emanates from the fact that the current credit crisis and the transatlantic mortgage financial turmoil have questioned the effectiveness of bank consolidation programme as a remedy for financial stability and monetary policy in correcting the defects in the financial sector for sustainable development. Many banks consolidation had taken place in Europe, America and Asia in the last two decades without any solutions in sight to bank failures and crisis. The paper attempts to examine the performances of government induced banks consolidation and macro-economic performance in Nigeria in pre-consolidation and post-consolidation period. The paper analyses published audited accounts of two (2) out of twenty-five (25) banks that emerged from the consolida tion exercise and data from the Central Banks of Nigeria (CBN). We denote year 2004 as the pre-consolidation and 2005 and 2006 as post-consolidation periods for our analysis. In doing this, efforts would be made to examine empirically how bank consolidation through recapitalization has affected the performance of Nigerian banks during the period covered by the research. The data for the work are from secondary sources and would be obtained exclusively from the Central Bank of Nigeria and bank publications, both electronic and paper form. CAMEL analysis will be employed to analyse the financial data so as to ascertain the relationship between consolidation and bank performance. The CAMEL analysis is chosen because of its optimal properties, simple computational procedures and is suitable for an empirical work such as the present research project work. Against the findings that would emerge from the intended empirical investigation of this work, appropriate recommendations that are likely to better enhance the effectiveness of banking sector reforms in Nigeria thereby restoring confidence in the system. CHAPTER 1 1.1 Introduction The Nigerian banking sector over the past 20 to 25 years has experienced boom and bust in a cyclical pattern. After the implementation of the structural adjustment program (SAP) in 1986 and the deregulation of the financial sector, new banks proliferated, mainly driven by attractive arbitrage opportunities in the foreign exchange market (Heiko 2007). Prior to the deregulated period, financial intermediation never took off and even declined in 1980s and 1990s (Capirio and Kligbiel 2003). The sector was highly oligopolistic with remarkable features of market concentration and leadership. Lemo (2005) noted that there are ten Nigerian banks that control more than 50% of the aggregate assets of the banking sector; more than 51% of the aggregate deposit liabilities and more than 45% of the aggregate credits. The sector was characterized by small sized banks with high overheads; low capital base averaging less than $10million; heavy reliance on government patronage and loss making. Nigerias banking sector was still characterized by a high degree of fragmentation and low levels of financial intermediation up until 2004. In the light of the foregoing, banks are compelled by the Central Bank of Nigeria to raise their capital base from N2 billion to 25 billion on or before 31st December, 2005. Most banks resorted to mergers and acquisition as a survival strategy, which saw a reduction in the number of banks from 89 to 25. This study contributes to the concept of bank recapitalization by critically examining the impact of bank consolidation on the performance of banks using a sample of randomly selected Nigerian banks. It is the intention of the researcher to give more validity to empirical evidence that have been obtained by previous researchers on the subject matter. Relevance of the study The earliest set of studies evaluates the effects of bank consolidation through mergers and acquisitions comparing pre- and post- merger performance by measuring performance using either accounting or productive efficiency indicators.The results from both indicators have varied and at sometimes been contradictory. This can be explained by performance-influencing variables like size, brand name, diversification and cost reduction, there is still no reconciliation between these indicators. I intend to contribute to the determinants of bank performance by evaluating the possible performance impact of bank consolidation on banks. Consolidation is the key to improving the performance of banks with low capital base, without which they are bound to fail. 1.3 Background of study Aside being the highest contributor to the market capitalization of the Nigerian stock exchange and smooth and stable income provision to money and capital market, banking industry is capable of attracting potential investor which is a source of every economic development. Financial institutions generally, and banking sector in particular play a crucial role in the development process of mobilizing fund from the surplus sector of the economy to the deficit sectors of the economy. Banks help in increasing the quantum of national savings and investment. Consequently, the volume of goods and services produced in the economy increases overtime through the multiplier effect. Banks enhance stable and smooth income to attract potential investors in line with Modigliani and Miller (1958) theory that investors generally have preference for smooth and stable income. According to sloan and Arlond (1970) consolidation is a fusion of the assets and liabilities, in whole or in part of two or more business establishment. Consolidation represents the idea of investment and the coming together of firms; it can also mean larger sizes, larger shareholder bases and larger number of depositors. According to Adamu (2005) bank or corporate consolidation could be achieved by way of mergers/acquisition and recapitalization. It is more than mere shrinking of number of banks in any banking industry. According to Hall (1999) consolidation is a global phenomenon, which started in the advanced economies of the world. For example, the enactment of Riegle-Neal Act, which allows interstate branch banking beginning from 1997 this led to increase in bank mergers in the USA (Akhavin et al and kwan 2004). Consolidation allow a mega bank to enjoy higher profit, increase revenue and low problem loans. Japanese banking industry also experienced consolidation in the 1990s which resulted to economies of scale (Fukuyama, 1993; Mckillop et al 1996). When banks go bust, their capital base is ca lled to question. Cases of bank failures have motivated researchers to investigate the activities of banks in relation to performance in terms of returns. A view is that consolidation has increased the capital base and size of Nigerian banks but does not necessarily bring about higher performance. Criteria Selecting Nigeria Study Consolidation is a term used by the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) to describe the coming together of some banks within the country to become one bank and be able to meet CBNs requirement for capitalization to a minimum of N25billion. When this happens, it is expected to improve services rendered by the banks. In July 6, 2004, a day now referred to as black Tuesday in banking sector of the economy, the CBN Governor, professor Charles Soludo made an obviously unexpected policy pronouncement. The highlight was the increment of the earlier N2billion to N25 billion, with full compliance deadline fixed for the end of the year 2005. In an attempt for banks to meet up with the new requirement, some Banks are exploring the option of inviting foreign investors to buy into Banks. Others are looking at the possibility of getting investors to shore up their capital, and some are looking at the capital market option, while others are considering mergers and acquisition. If the process o f consolidation is properly implemented the ongoing consolidation of banks in the country will surely improve the banking sector in Nigeria and translate to better banking services and cheap funds.ÂÂ   More importantly, the public will not have fear of distress in any bank, since the consolidated bank will have enough funds. The need to understand the impact of bank consolidation on Nigerian banks either negative or positive necessitated the use of Nigerian banks as sample for this study. 1.5 Aim To analyze the effect of consolidation on the performance of Nigerian Banks 1.6 Objectives To examine the consolidation process of Nigerian banks. To Asses the performance of Nigerian banks before and after consolidation. To evaluate the impact of consolidation on Nigerian banks. CHAPTER 2: Literature Review 2.1 Introduction This chapter attempts to gain an in-depth view into what is already known in connection with the research topic being studied. It therefore brings to light the different theoretical and methodological approach to the research area, helps develop a practical analytical framework, considers inclusion of variables that may not have been thought about from the inception of the research work and in the long run learning can be gained from mistakes of previous researchers and avoidance of such mistakes would be achieved (Bryman Bell, 2003). The scope of the research is narrowed down through successful study of literature review that was continuous all through the research process. Further, the review of literature will incorporate a wide range of materials sourced from journal articles, corporate websites, government websites, multilateral organisations, text books and online databases which include: Wiley, Science Direct, Emerald and Business Source Premier. Reforms are predicate d upon the need for reorientation and repositioning of an existing status quo in order to attain an effective and efficient state. There could be fundamental bottle-neck that may inhibit the functioning of the institutions for growth and the achievement of core objectives in the drive towards enhancing and sustaining the economic and social imperatives of human endeavor. Carried out through either government institutions or private enterprises, reform becomes inevitable in the light of the global dynamic exigencies and emerging landscape. Consequently, the banking sector, as an important sector in the financial landscape, needs to be reformed in order to enhance its competitiveness and capacity to play a fundamental role of financing investment. Many literature indicates that banking sector reforms are propelled by the need to deepen the financial sector and reposition for growth, to become integrated into the global financial architecture; and involve a banking sector that is co nsulting with regional integration requirements and international best practices. The nexus between consolidation and financial sector stability and growth is explained by two polar views. Proponents of consolidation opined that increase size could potentially increase bank returns, through revenue and cost efficiency gains. It may also, reduce industry risks through the eliminations of weak banks and create better diversification opportunities. On the other hand, it is argued that consolidation could increase banks propensity towards risk taking through increases in leverage and off-balance sheet operations. Advocates Furlong (1994) stated that an early view of consolidation in banking was that it makes banking more cost efficient because larger banks can eliminate excess capacity in areas like data processing, marketing, or overlapping branch networks. Cost efficiency also could increase if more efficient banks acquired less efficient ones. Though studies on efficiency in banking raised doubts about the extent of overcapacity, they did point to considerable potential for improvement in cost efficiency through mergers. Banking reforms involves several elements that are unique to each country based on historical economic and institutional imperatives, for example, in Hungary. Evidence show that the reform in the banking sector was due to high under-capitalization of state owned banks, weakness in the regulation and supervision and deficiencies in corporate governance behavior of banks. Craig and Hardee (2004) conducted investigation on bank consolidation and concluded that as the banking co nsolidation continues, relationship lending is becoming increasingly rare. As credit scoring and formal, formulaic methods are used more and more, specifically by the large banks, many small businesses may find out that they do not fit the model, especially those enterprises with negative equity. Thus, small businesses may be filling the financing void that is being created by the bank consolidation with non-bank sources of funds. Hughes and Mester (1997) provide evidence to suggest that there are scale economics in banking, bank managers are risk averse, and banks use the level of their financial capital to signal the level of risk. This is an area of interest in Nigerian banking, especially when the return on equity is calculated in another two to three years and then compared with the historical industry average. Rhoades(1996) reported that American banks consolidated in response to the removal of restriction on bank branching across states, while Hughes, J.P; W. Lang; L.J. Me ster; C.G. Moon(1998) concluded that the economic benefits of consolidation are strongest for those banks that engaged in interested expansion, and in particular the expansion that diversifies macroeconomic risk. From the literature, it has been observed that well-spaced and implemented financial reforms have the ability to boost financial development indicators. Detractors Hughes J.P; Mester, L.J; and Moon, C.G (2000) also provide evidence that scale economies exist in banking but they fail to account for risk. Thus, scale economies that result from consolidation and diversification do not produce better performance in banking, unless choice makes the banks management more conscious risk and moderates its decisions and actions appropriate larger scale of operation that leads to diversification only reduce liquidity and credit risk under the ceteris bus assumption, and they argued that this is not always the case. The examination of merger and acquisition in European banking and found that industry consolidation was beneficial (by providing social benefits) in the first economic integration stages, but could damage welfare in the more advanced stages as the few big banks safeguard price agreements to forestall foreign competition. The other side to European mergers and acquisitions was because of the possibility of failure. This, of course, ignores the fact that no bank can ever be too big to fail. All it takes for a bank to fail is for bad news about a bank to get to its stakeholders (especially depositors) and they all walk in at the same time to take their funds! For such bank to survive, it must have sufficient liquid assets to meet all maturing and long-dated obligations (Igangiya, 2006). 2.2 Role of banks In the Economy Banks have an important role to play in an economy, as they are intermediaries between people with shortages and surpluses of capital. The products they offer will include savings, lending, investment, mediation and advice, payments, ownership, guarantee and, trust of real estate. (Bouma et al, 2001). This aspect is critical to this research study as the role of banks in any economy cannot be undermined therefore, the need to explore the effectiveness of their actions and how this ultimately affects the economy. The macroeconomic environment within which firms exist and, operate has an impact upon their activities and governments and other agencies operating at different spatial levels and it can shape behavior and their environment. (Worthington et al, 2001). According to Bouma et al, (2001), as a financial intermediary between market players, a bank has four important functions: First it transforms money by scale. The money surpluses of one person are mostly not the same as the shortages of another person. Banks transform money by duration. Creditors may have short-term surpluses of money, while debtors mostly have a long-term need for money. Banks transform money by spatial location (place). Finally, banks act as assessors of risk. As a rule, banks are better equipped to value the risks of various investments than individual investors who have surpluses available. Also, through their larger scale, banks are more able to spread risks. The major objectives of the banking system are to ensure price stability and facilitate rapid economic development; regrettably, these objectives are still yet to be realised in Nigeria as a result of some infrastructural deficiencies such as basic power, energy, and transportation. Also, the lack of a workable contingency planning framework which provides detailed policy actions to limit crises. The reforms of the banking industry will have an influence on the functions, as it ultimately shapes the way they handle their operations. The reform of recapitalisation and consolidation could mean a larger platform for banks to better carry out their tasks. This literature review takes a look at commercial banks in Nigeria when faced with the reformation of the banking industry, core competences needed by the banks to be successful and the effect on the macroeconomic indicators of the country. 2.3 The concept of capital base The recent call for recapitalization in the banking industry has raised much argument among the bank regulators, promoters and depositors as if shoring up of banks capital base is a new phenomenon in Nigeria. Historically, the failure of pioneer 1930s and 1940s brought about the enactment of banking ordinance of 1952. Banking ordinance of 1952 prescribed an operating license and emphasized on minimum equity capital for all banks (Omoh, 2007). Since then, raising of bank capital has become the hallmark response policy of the Nigerian monetary authorities. Capitalization is an important component of reforms in the banking industry, owing to the fact that a bank with a strong capital base has the ability to absorb losses arising from non-performing liabilities (NPL). Attaining capitalization requirement is achieved through consolidation, convergence as well as the capital market. Thus, banking reforms are primarily driven by the need to achieve the objectives of consolidation, comp etition and convergence. (Deccan Herald,2004), in the financial architecture. 2.4 The Concept of Bank Consolidation Consolidation is viewed as the reduction in the number of banks and other deposit taking institution with a simultaneous increase in the size and concentration of the consolidation entities in the sector (BIS, 2001:2). It is mostly motivated by technology innovation, deregulation of financial services, enhancing intermediation and increased emphasis on shareholder value, privatization and international competition (Berger et al, 1991). The process of consolidation has been argued to enhance bank efficiency through cost reduction and revenue in the long run. It also reduces industrys risk by eliminating weaker banks and acquiring the smaller ones by bigger and stronger banks as well as creates opportunities for greater diversification and financial intermediation. The pattern of banking system consolidation could be viewed in two different perspectives, namely; market-driven and government-led consolidation. The market-driven consolidation which is more pronounced in the devel oped countries sees consolidation as a way of broadening competitiveness with added comparative advantage in the global context and eliminating excess capacity more efficiently than bankruptcy or other means of exit. On the other hand, government-led consolidation stems from the need to resolve problem of financial distress in order to avoid systematic crises as well as to restrict inefficient banks (Ajayi, 2005). One of the general effects of consolidation is to the reduction in the number of players, moving the industry more toward an oligopolistic market (Adedipe, 2007). 2.5 Prospect of Bank consolidation In Nigeria The initial public offering by banks through the capital market when completed is likely to increase the level of financial deepening as evidenced in the upsurge in the volume and value of trading in stock market. The reform in the banking industry has been able to attract more foreign investment inflow, especially in the area of portfolio investment; this development if sustained will boost the level of economic activity especially toward non oil sector. The consolidation of banks is likely to attract a significant level of foreign banks entrance into Nigeria which will become a feature in the industry over time. This will bring about more confidence by the international community of the banking sector thereby attracting more foreign investment into the country. As the level of financial intermediation increase, interest rate is likely to fall and increase lending to the real sector that will generate employment and booster growth. 2.6 The Process of Bank consolidation In Nigeria Before any bank can be said to consolidate through merger and acquisition in the Nigeria industry, it must first seek and obtain the approval of the following regulatory and supervisory authorities in the industry. They include the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) (CBN, 2004). Chapter 3: Research Methodology Introduction This chapter sets out the method employed in conducting the research. The choice of method was made based on the nature of the research problem. The purpose of this research is to discover, if any, the impact of bank consolidation on bank performance. Effort would be made to ensure that the methodology and conceptual framework adopted in the research are as relevant to the findings as the concepts and theories of the study. This is because the validity and reliability of conclusions are largely influenced by the research process itself. 3.2 Research Design This study is a causal or explanatory analysis since it seeks answers to questions related to the causes and determinants of bank performance. The research adopts a deductive approach. It outlines theories of director relationship to firm performance and draws hypothesis from them. These hypotheses are then tested using empirical social data to either confirm or reject the contentions. 3.3 Quantitative Versus Qualitative Data A clear distinction must be emphasized between quantitative and qualitative data. The former is concerned with the compilation of the results of research in a standardised mathematical form with the analysis conducted by means of statistics. (Saunders et al, 2003, p.378). Here variables are measured on a selection of scales and can then be arranged in order of arithmetical rigour. Conversely qualitative research is subjective in its approach of examining and reflecting on perceptions of understanding social and human activities (Hussey and Hussey, 1997). Qualitative research is inductive and researchers rarely know the specifics of data analysis when they begin a project (Neuman, 2006). It is concerned with the assemblage of data in a non-standardised, descriptive form, with the examination conducted through the use of theoretical models. 3.4 Data Type Raw or summarized data which has already been collected and stored for other purposes aside from that of the research in question is referred to as secondary data (Saunders et al, 2007). This research will make use of multiple-source secondary data collected from bank financial reports and CBN statistical publications available on the CBN, Guaranty trust and zenith banks websites, some paper source of data will also be used. The data/study will be restricted between the period of 2004 and 2006. The year 2004 is the pre-consolidation, 2005 consolidation while 2006 is the post-consolidation periods. The choice of data type is based on accessibility, cost saving and authenticity factors. Sample Selection The representative sample of the Nigerian banking sector to be used as a sample of the population under study is Guaranty Trust Bank PLC and Zenith Bank PLC. CAMEL ANALYSIS CAMEL is derived from the five components of a banks condition which include Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Management, Earnings, and Liquidity. Ratings are assigned for each component, and a composite rating is assigned for the overall condition and performance of the bank. These component and composite ratings are assigned on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 representing the highest rating (strongest performance) and 5 representing the lowest (weakest performance) (Hirtle and Lopez, 1999). The camel analysis will be used to analyse the performance of banks during the pre-consolidation (2004) and the post-consolidation (2006) periods. Limitation The major difficulty that is likely to be encountered during the course of carrying out this research is the dearth of information, which is usually associated with emerging economies (including the Nigerian economy). Deliberate efforts would therefore be made to obtain information necessary to enhance the quality of the present research. 4.0 CONCLUSION In summary, the research tries to establish that bank consolidation helps in shoring up investment capital, enhances shareholder value, and protects creditors and depositors as well as strengthening banks capacities to attract funds at lower costs enhancing their liquidity positions. An efficient banking system tends to be one of the greatest focuses of the Central Bank of Nigeria since its establishment in 1959. Thus, sufficient capital base has largely constituted the Banks reform policy focus over the years. Hence, it may not be out of place to conclude at this material time that the ongoing reform policy is essential for the attainment of overall macroeconomic stability on a sustainable basis. Accordingly, the Central Bank of Nigeria is admonished to intensify its present efforts geared towards restoration of confidence in the banking system. The research work analyses published audited accounts of two (2) out of twenty-five (25) banks that emerged from the consolidation exercise and data from the Central Banks of Nigeria (CBN). We denote year 2004 as the pre-consolidation and 2005 and 2006 as post-consolidation periods for our analysis. In doing this, efforts would be made to examine empirically how bank consolidation through recapitalization has affected the performance of Nigerian banks during the period covered by the research. The data for the work are from secondary sources and would be obtained exclusively from the Central Bank of Nigeria and bank publications, both electronic and paper form. CAMEL analysis will be employed to analyse the financial data so as to ascertain the relationship between consolidation and bank performance BIBLIOGRAPHY Bernerd, B.P., (2006), The effect of recent changes in the financial sector development in Nigerian, Paper presented at the 15th General Assembly of the African rural and agricultural credit association (AFRACA), Bukina Faso. CBN., (2004), Guidelines and Incentive on Consolidation in consolidating Banking Industry. Charles, C.S. (2004) Consolidating the Nigerian Banking Industry to Meet the Developmental challenges of the 21st century. Paper presented at a meeting of bankers committee Abuja 6 July 2004. Larry, U; et al., (2004) Issues in Financial Institutions Surveillance in Nigeria. A seminar paper by CBN training centre Lagos. Eshodaghor, D.V., (2006), Impact of distressed banks in depressed Economy, Prospects for survival and growth. Bank failure in Nigeria, causes and dimension pp. 17 22. Ezeudusi, F. U., (2002) Marcus, G., (2003), An approach to the consolidation of Banks Merger Issues by regulators., A south African case business paper (4), NDIC Annual Report and Statement of Account . Oviemuno, A.O., (2006) Banking Consolidation in Nigeria and the strategies for Generating better returns. Ogunleye G.A. (2003) The regulatory imperatives of the Universal Banking concept in Nigerian NDIC quarterly, (11) No. (2), pp.20-30 Ochojele, D. I., (2003) The Nigerian banking industry, a review seminar paper. Osaije, E., (1992), Structural adjustment programme in Nigerian economy Victor, Ezeaku., (2003), Consolidation of Nigerian Banking Sector, CBN publication.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

ReligionFinalpaper - 1535 Words

Shelby Teal Professor Thompson Final Paper Part one â€Å"Critical intelligence involves a number of different intellectual skills including analysis and synthesis (Kessler, p.6.) My understanding of critical intelligence is a viewpoint withholding judgement and being critical while looking at different religions. As a student practicing critical Intelligence in this class was a huge part of understanding the case studies. In the case Adding Eid the Superintendent of the Cambridge Public School Jeff Young took on a large issue when he was asked to add a Muslim holiday to the school calendar. At first he just wanted the issue to go away, asking himself if it really was a battle he wanted to choose. Later, he realized it was a really†¦show more content†¦Later he realized that in his heart he truly believed the holiday should be on the school calendar and the school day should be given off to all students. I originally felt like it should not be added because It wasnt a largely practiced religion event where Im from. As I went through and dissected the case I found that there were a lot of people that would indeed benefit from having the holiday added. Muslim students benefit the most because they can enjoy the Holiday without missing tests, or important assignments that impact their grades. Parents would be less stressed on the holiday if they didnt have to have it interrupted by needing to pick their child up from school or worry about calling into school when they should be celebrating their faith. I imagined if we didnt get Christmas off and I had to go to school instead. A lot of memories from the holiday wouldnt happen. I think Holidays are an important part of religion, and are a very sacred time for families. You cant make one Holiday more important than the other, because when you do you undermine and insult other important religious holidays. When I read the scholarly article an interesting perspective was introduced to me. What if I were to go to another country that wasnt christian? Would my holidays be recognized at all? Being that Christianity is the major religion in America, I support adding Eid to the school calendars, but am not going to be a huge activist on the

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Changes in Restaurant Menu and Online System-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Changes in Restaurant Menu and Online System. Answer: Introduction: As a result of the speedy growth in the usage of the internet and technologies related, numerous new opportunities in future related to the network. As a result, several companies and business are also undertaking the business through the new trends of the internet. Such advances in the technology have made a great impact in the restaurant and food industry (Gase et al., 2015). In todays fast pace life where the individuals are short of time and want to complete things in a second, the majority of the individuals are finicky at times placing an order for the food in the restaurants. The reason of attraction for the consumers is because of the convenience in placing the order online and the other reason is the visibility of the food items that are offered, price and the enormously simplify navigation for the order (Gase et al., 2015) . In the recent time, many of the restaurants are focusing on the speedy preparations and immediate delivery of the orders in spite of offering the prosperous dining experience. Recently it is observed that many of the orders are a placed online and also on the phone. Transformation in the menu system of the restaurants presents an up-to-date and interactive menu happening with the options which are easy to use in any manner. The older system of the restaurants aims in accelerating the orders of the consumers (Gase et al., 2015). Innovation in the ordering system and the menu of the restaurant helps the company to attract more clients and reflected as the modern approach focusing on the consumers. Changes in the market of the restaurant industry are constant and mainly such changes happen silently. The recurrent changes in the industry are driven as a result of the demographic evolution, needs of the modern buyers and also affected by the economic crisis globally. Such a rapid growth of the wireless communication and the internet results the industry in gaining more consumers (Gase et al., 2015) . The system of placing orders online is just a new concept in the industry and is being very successful around the globe. Such concept consists of the professional website of the company with a system which represents the company in the scenario of the online world. In such online ordering concept, the consumer will place the order online with the confirmation details which will help the order details entering the database and will be retrieved by the company in a pretty quick time (RASA, 2017). This, in turn, helps the responsible employee of the organisation to speedily watch the orders received and efficiently processing of the orders with the stipulated time frame and without any confusion. In this research will discuss the changes in the online methods and the menu of the restaurants and their effect on the present scenario of the consumers. Problem Statement: The older system of the menu and food orders are time consuming, in such process first the employee will take the order and then the orders will be dropped to the cashier after that the orders will move in the Kitchen (RASA, 2017). The information related to the orders is kept on the paper which is difficult for the administration of the restaurant to find and there is more probability of missing the information and is difficult to rearrange the schedule (RASA, 2017). The business of the restaurants is managed manually, especially during the orders taken from the consumers. Delay in the services may affect the level of consumer satisfaction and consumer loyalty. (RASA, 2017) Objectives As per the problem statement, the objectives of the study is to develop such menu and online ordering system in the restaurant industry, which makes the hassle free food services to the consumers at their doorstep. The objective of the study is to understand the online system and using interfaces for the online management system. Providing, the information related to the changes in the menu and the ordering system of the restaurant. Increase in the sales and productivity of restaurants, by knowing the status and restocking the special orders (RASA, 2017). This also increases the working efficiency of the detailed reporting and online system. Research proposal and presentation: Menu in the reasturant industry is considered as the primary communication and the marketing tool The menu is the main advertising and message tools in the restaurant business. The business-to-client digital strategy is extensively used in mutually daily living and trade, especially the generosity business (Hahm and Khan, 2001). Menus have the past of almost around 260 years now further restaurant are revising menu and opening to use latest and much wanted digital menus. Advertising research and information from the Nations Restaurant. The famous newspaper The New York Times illustrate that the digital menu assists the restaurant to enlarge the profit by the production of food more easy to get to, selling extra and require a smaller amount of labor in contrast to the customarily written menu document (Hahm and Khan, 2001). The blueprint values and user boundary are diverse in publish menu and digital menus with this the design strategy for the new age group of digital menus. The dig ital menus, in addition, offer the immense opportunity for personalization and customization for using communication to improve user incident(Hahm and Khan, 2001). Literature review: Refer Kershaws (2009) and Radice (1992) research, the menu is measured and considered as a main advertising and sales instrument by the directing awareness and ever-increasing profit in restaurants (Hahm and Khan, 2001). It is one of the most significant aspects of the achievement of several foodservice organizations. possibly it is debatably the spirit of the restaurant. It infers quite a lot of interpretation for together the buyers as well as the sellers. Khan in the year 1991 also suggests that "menus are in an actual sense the statements" of the foodstuff and- beverage stuff which is provided by a restaurant establishment, first and foremost based on customer needs as well as his/her demands and intended to attain the aimed objectives"(Hahm and Khan, 2001). Kreck (1984) and Mooney (1994) note that menu can be interpreted as an acute list of manufactured goods variety which a restaurant offer and the similar time it may also be considered as a piece of writing or show used to con verse the manufactured goods range to the client (Hahm and Khan, 2001). Though, a current study argues that "menus are supplementary than the conservative function of an exchange and selling instrument, but also a study and testing device which can be calculated to boost the restaurant profit" (Hahm and Khan, 2001) Existing System: In present system for ordering any information users be supposed to visit restaurants or hotels to be acquainted with food substance and then offer order and pay the progress (Ogawa, 2002). Refer this method occasion and instruction booklet work is mandatory. Maintaining a dangerous information in the records and manual is full of danger and a boring process. Proposed System: This online request enables the conclusion user to record online, select the foodstuff from the e-menu certificate, understand writing the E-menu certificate and arrange food online(Wansink, Painter and Ittersum, 2001). The consequences after selecting the foodstuff from the E-menu certificate in a straight line appear in the display near the cook who is available to grill the foodstuff for you (Ogawa, 2002). By means of this submission, the employment of the member of staff serving at the table is concentrated plus the work is invalidated (Ogawa, 2002). The advantage of this fact is that in case there is a crowd of the clientage in the eating place, subsequently, there shall be the probability that the waiter shall be engaged and the user can straightforwardly order the foodstuff to the cook online by means of this submission. The consumer shall be given a password and a username to sign in(Ogawa, 2002). Private DIGITAL ASISTANTS (PDA'S) BASED scheme: A number of the wireless system like i-menu, WOS, FIWOS was urbanized when innovative technology and approach being introduced to mechanize the foodstuff order process. All of the processes which are discussed above were PDA- set. The characteristic of the PDA system was that clients or waiters enter in he process of ordering. By means of wireless expertise, there was simple communication sandwiched between the PDAs and a member of staff serving at the table. But PDA base system also had numerous drawbacks (Ogawa, 2002). PDA set system enlarged the restaurant's expenses. PDA system also did not give any genuine time reaction from clients. The menu cards refer the PDAs were not good-looking and were totally uninformative as it did not hold up with descriptions (Ogawa, 2002). Multitouch technology: The Multi-touch knowledge is a progress version to the presented touch skill where the customer has right to control and carry out the operation at the same time as on the electronic chart display using manifold fingers inputs (Ogawa, 2002). Big displays such as from the wall screen and the tabletop are deemed to be fundamentals for in sequence apparition purposes when trade with manifold users sharing the similar show. It is reported that the communal communication is extremely better among user using a communal display and effort (Wansink, Painter and Ittersum, 2001). But there are convinced limits of the multi-touchable eating place organization systems. Touch screen accessible in the marketplace are of resistive and capacitive types which are very expensive (Ogawa, 2002). The online foodstuff order system set up a bill of fare online and the clients with no trouble placing the order with a straightforward mouse tick. Along with this, a food menu online faci lity enables you to easily pathway the guidelines, preserve customer's folder and improve your foodstuff release service. This scheme allows the consumer to select the preferred food substance from the displayed bill of fare. The consumer orders the foodstuff items. The compensation can be completed online and also through the pay-on-delivery arrangement (Ozdemir and Caliskan, 2014). The ordering System is an understanding that included both ideas of intranet and wireless knowledge. This scheme provides consumer to contact the data, in order and services from a distant server, that enables the consumer to admission the middle databases dispersed across the eating place network (Ozdemir and Caliskan, 2014). The majority of the handheld campaign has implemented and support wireless knowledge and so mobile devices is a perfect hardware machine that use to hold up this structure in order to let the user distant right entry to the database for data recovery. The scheme requires the customer to manufacture an intranet system within the eating place and there shall be a middle database member of staff serving at table resides in the system and the customer can go for the data retrieval by means of the mobile strategy such as PDA which stands for the Personal Digital Assistant connect to the wireless admission point (Ozdemir and Caliskan, 2014). Wireless food order system is a way out which can assist the restaurant to speed up their client services as well as the organization feature. After the scheme has been carefully implemented in the eating place, the flow foodstuff ordering procedure shall be changed to mechanize. Waiter have to take instructions by choosig the food that desires to order from the carte du jour on the portable devices as the contribution and the data shall be sent to the middle database, after which the computer exists in the kitchen will get back the data from the middle folder and show on the computer monitor (Ozdem ir and Caliskan, 2014). After the foodstuff fits to be eaten, the worker in the kitchen can verify the food regulate and update to the folder. This shall be the signal for the member of staff serving at table mobile machine to admit the waiter the food is prepared to dish up the food to individual customers. Strength The scheme eliminates the requirement for a member of staff serving at the table to take arrange with pen and document. Moreover, the wine waiter only wants to carry the movable devices for the whole operational hour to do food order process as an alternative to using pen and document (Tetreault, 2017). Apart from this, the system also can assist in provisions of environmentally welcoming by dipping the usage of the paper. The scheme is very appropriate for fast food manufacturing due to it provide aptitude for the client to put order wherever and all over the place and also minimize the occasion require during the arranging process. clients do not require to bodily go to the eating place for foodstuff ordering as an alternative of immediately using their mobile machine to put an order through the internet plus when the client reach the eating place they can in a straight line have their snack without waiting for it in a queue (Tetreault, 2017). Meanwhile, it assists the express food restaurant to have improved client services as the most significant feature that fast food manufacturing concern about is rapidity, therefore, the restaurant is supposed to dish up their client without any holdup. Mackay in the year 2008 claimed that "clients who order on the net tend to order extra as they have a bill of fare in frontage to them." With the internet, there shall be fewer errors on the instructions or miscommunication in the middle of clients and the worker who taking instructions. Contrast to telephone call ordering, online order pizza makes fewer mistakes. When throughout the telephone call order, the client may organize wrong thing without realizing it (Tetreault, 2017). The articulation of convinced language might lead to arrange the wrong manufactured goods. In addition, it provides an appropriate check. The scheme examines all foodstuff orders prior to the conclusion and corrects human being error. Also, with this scheme, the listing of online visitors is utilized to make an expensive marketing campaign (Tetreault, 2017). The online order provides the magnificent solution for a place of work lunch instructions. The clients can command without the bother of using telephone call to arrange the pizza. The client can take their point in time and get the pizza in instant (Tetreault, 2017). The eating place website guarantees that the communication, promotions and add-on offer are well delivered to the clients. In monetary factor, online order system increases the competence and cost efficiency of the order operation. For the ad, it can make with no trouble or upload promotions to the website of Domino's Pizza. For example, this scheme can add to the customer's visitor check mechanically by client email by suggestive of an upcoming sell for additional foodstuffs. Online order increase in sales of merchandise in the Domino Pizza business. Disadvantages The tendency of shopping online, particularly ordering the pizza online has slowly been important in the previous decade and online seller are predictable to have improvement on the quantity of sale after website services and features changed. There is no hesitation so as the clients can find a huge deal online and so a lot of dissimilar products that may not be even obtainable in normal stores. By this method, there is a positive disadvantage of online order as well (Tetreault, 2017). Though, a corporation must think on the aim market they shall like to focus on promoting their foodstuffs and the services too. The old are most improbable to order merchandise online due to their information of working a supercomputer. So, if the aim market includes the old, a traditional examine has to be given to them. The online connectivity issue is the most disadvantages for online order. The clients add substance in online shopping heave enters in order and push "submit". The verification screen may time out when the internet has an unbalanced link (Tetreault, 2017). The online clients would not be acquainted with whether the arrange has been complete. Moreover, clients may also create human error, such as order the wrong item. This can happen when the client attempts to put an order. The client may have by mistake clicked on the incorrect thing while placing their instructions all the way through the website. Even if the buyer clicks on the right product and provides a correct product numeral there may still be an error made in the order procedure if there are option connected with the thing (Tetreault, 2017). This difficulty can be quite disturbing as the user will get nervous when the wrong item is conventional and therefore, lose customers' faithfulness towards the business. One more disadvantage is that online purchase would signify that, the individual information has to be known in the business when a purchase is taking place on the other hand many of the companies benefits themselves with such characteristic. By purchase on the net, the buyer would have to acquire the danger of having their information in sequence taken by the online company can be distorted. Though this is an extremely rare incidence, it is additionally likely to occur online, than in self (Tetreault, 2017). To keep away from personal in sequence from being shown, clients would more often not look for a trustable business to purchase merchandise from. Methodology Research methodology includes the procedures, models, and techniques which prove helpful in concluding the results related to the issues and consists of the steps such as the research objective, plan, collecting information through the questionaries, analysing such information and finally concluding with the findings. The research designed is related to the changes in the menu and ordering system of the reasturants will integrate the quantitative method of the research. The research will relieves on collecting data with interviewing the consumers of the restaurants with this the progression includes such actions which are significant in developing the questionnaire, that supports to collect data connected with the research. The implication of the Qualitative research ensures a developed understanding related to the topic(Vinayak et al., 2013). The surveys and research conducted to provide a solid foundation for the theories and studies done in the past related to the changes in the m enu and ordering sytem of the reasturants. The utilization of the quantitative methods also develops a tangible demonstration of the result on an authentic setting (Vinayak et al., 2013). In similar, the make use of such type of research proves fruitful to the researcher in measuring the parameter that is held in the objectives of the research. The study will include the interviews and the questionnaires as the significant tools in collecting data for the research. Research process: Research process conducted will help in identifying the issues if any related to the dining experiences faced by the consumers. Foremost the research process will prove helpful in identifying any problems or issues related to the research. Then the questionnaire and surveys related to the research will be conducted which will prove fruitful in the research outcomes. The research conducted will help in identifying such methods which prove beneficial in improving the experience of the consumers related to the restaurant industry (Vinayak et al., 2013). The related actions will be evaluated that resulted in better and improved services with changes in the menu and ordering system of the restaurants. Instrumentation: The questionnaire contents will be separated into four diverse parts. The foremost part is to measure the perceptions of the participants related to the restaurant menu and ordering system. It consists of the ten attributes which reflect the proportions of the restaurant atmospherics (Vinayak et al., 2013). Additionally, such attributes will be known as the statements which imitate the perceptions of the patrons related to the restaurants ordering and menu system. Then, five-point Likert scale ranges from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) is to elected as the consumer responses (Vinayak et al., 2013). The second phase includes the questioning that measures the level of satisfaction of the consumers related to the changes in the ordering sytem. The trial questions would be: How the consumers are satisfied with the ambient services of the restaurant? How contented are the consumers with the spatial layout of the new changes in the ordering and menu system in the restaurant? Satisfaction level of the consumer with such new services of the restaurant? In general, are the services cost effective and tech savvy? After this, there will be a five-point Likert scale range from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied) is selected according to their responses to the questions. The third part includes the three questions that measure the behavioural intensions of the participants. The example questions are: How likely the individuals will return or opt for the changes in the menu and ordering system. How useful are the changes done in the day today life of the individual? Do the processes are hassle free and are beneficial? Is the process easy and consumer friendly? Each of the behavioural intension is measured with one item, from 1 = very unlikely to 5 = very likely. In the last part, we will elicit the appropriate individual information, such as patrons gender, age, job, educational level nationality and income. Data collection and Data Analysis: The Questionaries will helps in measuring the perceptions of the participants related to the changes in the menu and the ordering system in the restaurants. Such methods ensure that the responses of the patrons can effectively reflect their dining experiences with the new methodology used in the restaurants.In this Research Proposal, two methods of the data collection will be applied. The Data Analysis and data collection are done in such cases where patrons are using the services. For the convenient approach of sampling, the collection of the sample include the upscale full and middle service restaurants were chosen as an application for finding the behaviour of the participants in the nearby popular restaurants. Such restaurants will be providing the range of cuisines, which includes the Western-style dishes, contemporary Japanese cuisine, authentic Vietnamese cuisine and innovative Chinese fusion foods. Patrons are voluntary and are selected as the consumers of the different resta urants. The questionnaires are to be distributed among such selected consumer utilising such services in the given restaurants. In the meantime, the survey will be conducted among the consumers using the services. The consumers must participate in the surveys and Questionnaire with full zeal and zest which helps in removing any issues or the malfunctioning of any system related to the menu or the ordering system. Such methods of data collection and analysis help the researcher to reach certain constructive outcomes related to the changes in the menu and ordering system in reasturants. Research report: From the research and survey done among the consumers regarding the changes in the menu and the ordering system it is seen that such changes in the system and the The internet online foodstuff ordering scheme provides ease for the clients. It overcomes the disadvantage of the customary queuing organization. This scheme increases the carry off of foods than guests. So, this system enhances the pace and consistency of captivating the order from the client (Vinayak et al., 2013). It provides an enhanced message platform. The users particulars are renowned by electronic means.. The latest examine shows that around 43 percent of customers have located an extract or release order online (Vinayak et al., 2013). These restaurants that tender online order advantage from having clients contented by the expediency. Conclusion: The digital Restaurant Menu allows your visitors to put the order right away with no waiter's attendance. Every customer can with no trouble select the food substance from the menu and leave the instructions from the eatery app. This rapid and pioneering food order experience will absolutely enhance the eatery dining knowledge of the visitors (Vinayak et al., 2013). In todays humankind, it is a necessity to have an online scheme to augment the income of the commerce and to serve with no trouble to the clients.. a lot of restaurants have select to spotlight on quick training and speedy liberation of instructions rather than submission of a rich dining skill. Online order is trouble-free and suitable yet they have much more to pick up on their online order system. It is good quality that online order system has connected the customers' in order with the folder of the scheme which facilitates the order of clients (Vinayak et al., 2013). In addition, customers' information might be tracked with ease from their record quickly if they are normal clients. Survey questionnaire: The Survey will include a certain question which will be asked from the consumers who are using the services of the restaurants in the given area, where the consumers are placing their orders while sitting on the table and the order automatically forwards to the kitchen or the counters directly. The Questions are as follows: What is your Age? 21 21-30 30 Has the consumer eaten at any local restaurant that takes the order manually? Yes NO Problem faced within the system? Yes No Are you computer literate: Yes No How will the one prefer in viewing the Menu? Self placing the order from the table Having the waiter over the table to take orders Placing the order solely over the counter The other feature individuals would prefer in the order taking the system of the restaurants References Gase, L., Kaur, M., Dunning, L., Montes, C. and Kuo, T. (2015). What menu changes do restaurants make after joining a voluntary restaurant recognition program?.Appetite, 89, pp.131-135. Hahm, S. and Khan, M. (2001). Changing Food Consumption Patterns and Their Impact on the Quick Service Restaurant Industry.Journal of Restaurant Foodservice Marketing, 4(3), pp.65-79. Ogawa, S. (2002). The Hypothesis-Testing Ordering System: A New Competitive Weapon of Japanese Convenience Stores in a New Digital Era.Industrial Relations, 41(4), pp.579-604. Ozdemir, B. and Caliskan, O. (2014). A review of literature on restaurant menus: Specifying the managerial issues.International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 2(1), pp.3-13. RASA. (2017).Advantages of Online Food Ordering for Restaurants - RASA. [online] Available at: https://restaurant.org.za.dedi279.nur4.host-h.net/2017/05/10/advantages-of-online-food-ordering-for-restaurants-2/ [Accessed 17 Aug. 2017]. Tetreault, A. (2017).How Technology is Changing the Restaurant Industry and the Way We Dine - The Industry Press. [online] The Industry Press. Available at: https://theindustrypress.com/how-technology-is-changing-the-restaurant-industry-and-the-way-we-dine/service-hospitality/allisontetreault/ [Accessed 17 Aug. 2017]. Vinayak, D., Ranjan, V., Masiwal, N. and Verma, N. (2013). e-Restaurant: Online Restaurant Management System for Android.International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 3(1). Wansink, B., Painter, J. and Ittersum, K. (2001). Descriptive Menu Labels Effect on Sales.Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(6), pp.68-72

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Effects Of Parent Smoking Habits On Thier Childs Smoking Habits Essays

Effects Of Parent Smoking Habits On Thier Childs Smoking Habits Effects of Parent Smoking Habits on their Child's smoking habits Abstract Parents have an influence on whether or not their children will develop smoking habits. The findings of this study show this to be true. Further research should be conducted to find out whether or not how many children the parents have also has an impact on smoking behaviors. The participants of this study were random individuals at a local convenience store ranging in age from 18 to 47. The total number of participants was 24. Of these twenty-four individuals thirteen were male and eleven were female. Only sixteen of the participants smoked, eight being male and eight being female. The eight non-smokers questioned all reported having parents who were non-smokers. In the start of this research survey, I wanted to question high-school students at a local area high school. When I went to conduct the research at the high school I was informed that there is red tape involved when dealing with minors. In order to question minors at this local high school the children would have had to have signed permission slips from there parents, after they had the chance to read over the survey that would have been filled out by their children. Having limited time to complete this research project I decided that it would be in my best interests if I conducted the research elsewhere. I also believe that having parents look at the survey might have compromised the answers that would have been given by the children. Suffice to say the convenience store was my second option in conducting this research. Although my second option did reveal relevant findings, I believe that better answers to the adolescent smoking phenomenon would have better been found in dealing directly with teenagers. Although more research is needed it seems as if the smoking behaviors of parents has a direct impact on the smoking behaviors of children. Introduction Smoking rates among youths in our country has steadily increased for years. The health consequences of smoking have been known for years, yet people still start the hard to break habit. My question is, Why? Previous studies have been conducted to answer this question. Variables in these studies have included peer pressure, advertising, and family smoking. It is the latter of the three that this research study plans to analyze. It is said that we are a product of our environment, so this study hopes to prove that when a parent or guardian smokes it increases the chances of their child or children of smoking. This question has been asked before, and it has been found by Karen H. Smith and Mary Ann Stutts that , at least for girls, having at least one parent who smokes is a good predictor of whether or not that child will end up smoking. (Smith,1999). Having a father who smokes increases boys chances of smoking by 1.5 times and for girls by 3.3 times. (Research Quarterly, 2000). Literature Review Many studies have been done on the habits of adolescent smoking. Previously examined in separate studies were peer pressure, family smoking, advertising and antismoking information. Bandura's smoking environment variables such as parental, sibling, and peer smoking habits were more important for predicting smoking behavior in adolescents. In prior research the number one predictor of smoking in adolescence is having at least one sibling who smokes. In college-aged students the number one predictors having at least one parent who smokes. These studies proved that the immediate family has a great influence on smoking habits. There are also other factors involved in the decision of an adolescent to begin smoking. Peer pressure is another concern. ?Teens who associated with friends who smoke and drink were more likely to do so.?(Parents and peers influence smoking, drinking, 2001) Two types of peer pressure occur in these studies: direct pressure and normative pressure. Direct pressure is when a friend or a peer asks or dares and adolescent to smoke. Normative pressure is indirect pressure such as socializing with peers who smoke. (Smith, 1999). This type of pressure causes the adolescent to lessen the negative aspects of smoking because they see someone they admire or look up to, smoking. College students are not as influenced by peer pressure as are junior high and high school aged students. These children are at an age where peer pressure is the greatest because it is truly when they begin to socialize without parental guardianship. (Smith,1999). One study that was

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on Natives

Native American religion penetrated every aspect of their culture. This makes it difficult for a predominantly white, European, secular society to interpret Native Indian spirituality. There is no single Native American religion, but rather as many religions as there are Indian peoples. Religion and ritual were a function of all activity: from the food quest and other survival-related work to technology, social and political organization, warfare and art. Religion and magic were fused with practical science; for example, prayer was used in conjunction with hunting and fishing techniques, and incantations accompanied effective herbal remedies in the curing of disease. I would like to elucidate on Native American views in relation to their religion. As stated by Lester Kurtz, â€Å"In a structurally differentiated society, every institution is given a specialized task; the task of religious institutions is to tend to spiritual and ethical issues† (167). Religion played a promine nt role in the interpretation of the universe for the American Indians. It facilitated in the adaptation of human activity to the patters of nature. Indians were traditionally a holistic and reverent people, viewing themselves as extensions of animate and inanimate natural objects.. In addition to this holism, other generalizations can be made in regard to Indian religion. Part of the special intimate relationship with nature involved a sense of kinship with the natural world and the attribution of innate souls and human properties to plants, animals, inanimate objects and natural phenomena. Indian religion generally also involved the belief that the universe is suffused with preternatural forces and powerful spirits. From what tribal populations already know, historians can conclude there are common characteristics that seem to be shared by all of the Native Americans. Although there are many points of contrast, the beliefs of Native Americans are distinguished by ... Free Essays on Natives Free Essays on Natives Native American religion penetrated every aspect of their culture. This makes it difficult for a predominantly white, European, secular society to interpret Native Indian spirituality. There is no single Native American religion, but rather as many religions as there are Indian peoples. Religion and ritual were a function of all activity: from the food quest and other survival-related work to technology, social and political organization, warfare and art. Religion and magic were fused with practical science; for example, prayer was used in conjunction with hunting and fishing techniques, and incantations accompanied effective herbal remedies in the curing of disease. I would like to elucidate on Native American views in relation to their religion. As stated by Lester Kurtz, â€Å"In a structurally differentiated society, every institution is given a specialized task; the task of religious institutions is to tend to spiritual and ethical issues† (167). Religion played a promine nt role in the interpretation of the universe for the American Indians. It facilitated in the adaptation of human activity to the patters of nature. Indians were traditionally a holistic and reverent people, viewing themselves as extensions of animate and inanimate natural objects.. In addition to this holism, other generalizations can be made in regard to Indian religion. Part of the special intimate relationship with nature involved a sense of kinship with the natural world and the attribution of innate souls and human properties to plants, animals, inanimate objects and natural phenomena. Indian religion generally also involved the belief that the universe is suffused with preternatural forces and powerful spirits. From what tribal populations already know, historians can conclude there are common characteristics that seem to be shared by all of the Native Americans. Although there are many points of contrast, the beliefs of Native Americans are distinguished by ...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Why was Japan so unsuccessful in solving the problem of deflation over Essay

Why was Japan so unsuccessful in solving the problem of deflation over the past decade - Essay Example On 29 December 1989, the Nikkei peaked at 38, 916 after a five year return of 237%. The rate in June of 2008 was at 14, 354 which is a startling 63% lower than the 1989 figure (Harrison 2008). According to the International Monetary Fund (2006), Japan was experiencing recovery from its previous declining position, but by 2009, the International Monetary fund showed recognition that the economic downturn of 2008 had stifled progress and the deflation was still a pervasive issue. As Shown in the graph examples in figure 1, both the real estate market and the stock market have shown steady deflationary trends since 1990. There have been a series of attempts to remedy the problem of deflation in Japan. These attempts include fiscal expansion, reduction of interest rates, Yen depreciation, and finally a zero interest rate program followed by a quantitative expansion program (Greenwood 2010). Unfortunately, these programs have all been ineffective in providing relief from the ongoing deflationary period. Greenwood (2010) states that the lack of recovery is due to poor political and economic leadership, an unwillingness to adopt unorthodox strategies, mistakes at the technical level, and the appearance of a â€Å"balance sheet recession†. An expansionary fiscal policy adopted by a government is marked by measures that are taken in order to create increased economic stabilization through governmental policies intended to create economic stimulus. In 1981, Yasuhiro Nakisone, Prime Minister of Japan, instituted polices that were stringent for the Japanese economy. However, by 1986, Naksone believed that these policies would require some adjustment in order to avert the looming crisis. A private advisory group headed by Bank of Japan Chairman Maekawa Haruo and commissioned by Nakisone submitted a report commonly referred to as the Maekawa Report which states that the Japanese economic policies and